Here are 21 Articles that tell you YES

Are There Any Medical Claims For CBD? 1

Canna CBD’s aim is to bring you information on CBD and medical claims from many sources

First and foremost we do not make any medical claims about the benefits of CBD. We are the manufacturer of Cannabis and aim to bring you various published articles and studies on CBD so you can make an informed choice when using our products. With that said we could not pass up the opportunity to share the vast amount of supporting medical claims that we’ve compiled. Check out some of the interesting facts and/or experiences below in relation to Cannabinoids and medical claims.

Can CBD Help Anxiety?

According to a number of articles online, there are claims that CBD has been attributed to helping with the symptoms of anxiety. Firstly, F. S. Guimarães, T. M. Chiaretti, F. G. Graeff and A. W. Zuardi claim in Volume 100 of Psychopharmacology1 that after conducting a test that used CBD “in an elevated plus-maze model of anxiety, in rats”, that “CBD causes a selective anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus maze, within a limited range of doses”. The results that were found in the study reinforce that CBD can be used to help with the condition; but if you want to find out more, it’s important to research before you use CBD for anxiety.

Are There Any Medical Claims For CBD? 2

Similarly, in the Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report2 which was written by an array of authors in 2010, it was claimed that CBD helped to reduce Social Anxiety Disorder. The study was aimed at investigating patients with this disorder and the effect that CBD has on them. They concluded that “CBD was associated with significantly decreased subjective anxiety (p < 0.001), reduced ECD uptake in the left parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, and inferior temporal gyrus (p < 0.001, uncorrected), and increased ECD uptake in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (p < 0.001, uncorrected)”. It also states that “this is related to its effects on activity in limbic and paralimbic brain areas”.

In a study found in Volume 226 of Psychopharmacology3, they found “evidence that CBD can enhance consolidation of extinction learning in humans and suggest that CBD may have potential as an adjunct to extinction-based therapies for anxiety disorders”. Using 48 participants, similarly to the study reported below, it demonstrates how it can be used to help with anxiety.

In Volume 12 of Neurotherapeutics4 in 2015, it was reported that CBD can be used by those who are suffering from anxiety, to help ease fears. They did this, by “assessing evidence from preclinical, human experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies”. Through the testing, they concluded that “ Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders, with need for further study of chronic and therapeutic effects in relevant clinical populations”. This, of course, is just an initial finding and therefore not concrete. It is interesting, however, to use this information in your research, to discover the benefits of CBD on anxiety sufferers. The report also spoke about how Cannabidiol can be used within the treatment process for anxiety disorders – “Overall, this review emphasizes the potential value and need for further study of CBD in the treatment of anxiety disorders.5

In Volume 30 of Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry6, a test has been reported, that used Cannabidiol in a rat Vogel conflict test. It states that the oil resulted in an “anxiolytic-like effect” and that the result was “in conclusion, CBD induced an anti-conflict effect not mediated by benzodiazepine receptors or by non-specific drug interference on nociceptive threshold or water consumption. These results reinforce the hypothesis that this cannabinoid has anxiolytic properties”. Anxiolytic is a drug (such as Xanax or Librium) which is often used to treat anxiety.

In the study called Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients7 which was included in Neuropsychopharmacology Volume 36, that was designed to “compare the effects of a simulation public speaking test (SPST on healthy control (HC) patients and treatment-naive SAD patients who received a single dose of CBD”, it was reported that “The increase in anxiety induced by the SPST on subjects with SAD was reduced with the use of CBD, resulting in a similar response as the HC”. 36 people were selected to take part in the study, with 12 of them on healthy control and 24 with the generalised SAD condition.

In the ‘Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety8, which was included in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, a study was carried out that tested both cannabidiol and ipsapirone on volunteers. The results found that there was “significant sedative effects were only observed with diazepam. The results suggest that ipsapirone and CBD have anxiolytic properties in human volunteers submitted to a stressful situation”. The healthy volunteers were tested by simulating a public speaking test (SPS).

Does CBD Help Alzheimers?

Alzheimer’s is a horrible condition that affects millions of people across the world of all ages and from all walks of life. In recent news, it has been claimed that CBD can be used as a potential therapy for the condition. The following articles cited below, include studies that were carried out using CBD and have found results that showcase it in a positive light.

Are There Any Medical Claims For CBD? 3

The first of which was included on Molecular Pharmacology9. In the test, they “compared the effects of CBD with those of other cannabinoids on microglial cell functions in vitro and on learning behavior and cytokine expression after Aβ intraventricular administration to mice”. The study found that “CBD is able to modulate microglial cell function in vitro and induce beneficial effects in an in vivo model of AD. Given that CBD lacks psychoactivity, it may represent a novel therapeutic approach for this neurological disease”.

The second, found in Volume 114 of Drug and Alcohol Dependence10, declares that CBD can demonstrate neuroprotective habits. The studied they conducted used a “voxel based morphometry approach” that takes MRI scans to test the effects of CBD on the user. It tested 13 healthy volunteers and 11 “chronic recreational cannabis users. Its aim was to show the effect of Cannabidiol in comparison to cannabis, which has been reported in the past to account for memory deficits as well as a “volume reduction of the hippocampus” where memories are stored.

The results of the test showed that “Lower volume in the right hippocampus in chronic cannabis users was corroborated. Higher THC and lower CBD was associated with this volume reduction indicating neurotoxic effects of THC and neuroprotective effects of CBD. This confirms existing preclinical and clinical results. As a possible mechanism the influence of cannabinoids on hippocampal neurogenesis is suggested”. This is a fascinating insight into how the drug can be used with memory loss, which is often a symptom of Alzheimer’s disease.

What Other Diseases Or Illnesses Can CBD Help?

Alongside Alzheimer’s and anxiety, there have been other medical claims made that support the use of CBD for certain conditions. The following, which are listed below, are just some of these conditions.

Addiction

Addiction can cause a myriad of problems in someone’s life. When it comes to cannabis, the last thing that you think would help would be Cannabidiol. But there are claims that it can be used to help with it.

Firstly, in Volume 29 of Journal of Neuroscience11, there was a study that was mentioned that was carried out that used a rat model and “examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD)… on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior”. The results of the study found that “CBD (5–20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin prime injection. Instead, it specifically attenuated heroin-seeking behavior reinstated by exposure to a conditioned stimulus cue. CBD had a protracted effect with significance evident after 24 h and even 2 weeks after administration”. The authors concluded that “The findings highlight the unique contributions of distinct cannabis constituents to addiction vulnerability and suggest that CBD may be a potential treatment for heroin craving and relapse.”

Alcoholism Yet another disease which affects millions of people across the world, Cannabidiol might not be a step of action thought by many. A study reported in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12, however, claimed that CBD can be used to protect the brain from binge drinking. In the article, they stated “we evaluated CBD as a neuroprotectant in a rat binge ethanol model. When administered concurrently with binge ethanol exposure, CBD protected against hippocampal and entorhinal cortical neurodegeneration in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the common antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and α-tocopherol also afforded significant protection”. In conclusion, the study “provides the first demonstration of CBD as an in vivo neuroprotectant and shows the efficacy of lipophilic antioxidants in preventing binge ethanol-induced brain injury”.

Angiogenesis

A condition which is a physiological process that formulated new blood vessels, it is one of the lesser known conditions that scientists have tested CBD on. Mentioned in the British Journal of Pharmacology, is the research paper titled ‘Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms’13. In the research paper, it talks about a study which “evaluated the effect of CBD on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and viability – through [3-(4,5 – dimethylthiazol – 2- yl) – 2,5 – diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and FACS analysis – and in vitro motility – both in a classical Boyden chamber test and in a wound‐healing assay”. The test they did revealed that “CBD inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. Its dual effect on both tumour and endothelial cells supports the hypothesis that CBD has potential as an effective agent in cancer therapy”. If you want to find out more, check out the full article, cited below.

An antagonist for Glioma cells

For those that do not know the phrase ‘Glioma’, it is a type of tumour that exists in the glial cells which are in the spine and brain. In Volume 63 of Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences14, they reported about a study that “investigated a possible involvement of caspase activation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction in the apoptotic effect of CBD”. The results of the thorough study found that “CBD produced a gradual, time-dependent activation of caspase-3, which preceded the appearance of apoptotic death”. This is, of course, just one finding, therefore more thorough research should be conducted if you wish to take CBD if you or your loved one has Glioma.

Anti-inflammation

Finding an anti-inflammatory is vital for a number of conditions such as acute lung injury. This study reported in the European Journal of Pharmacology15 looks at the way that Cannabidiol can be used to decrease this inflammation. The study tested CBD on mice, stated that “we show that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in a murine model of acute lung injury and that this effect is most likely associated with an increase in the extracellular adenosine offer and signalling through adenosine A2A receptor”.

Antibacterial

Using horse blood agar and nutrient broth agar, the study which is mentioned in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s 1976, Journal of Microbiology16, found that “THC and CBD were significantly active only against the gram-positive bacteria tested. The MIC’s on horse blood agar were at least ten times higher than those on nutrient broth agar”. For more information about the results of the study, there is a table included in the article which demonstrates all of the methods, materials and further results. Overall, however, the study stated that CBD is useful in getting rid of antibacterial activity.

Anticonvulsant

Commonly used to treat epilepsy, anticonvulsants aim is to stabilise the condition. Cannabidiol is now being tested on patients with such conditions. There are three studies mentioned below that discuss the impact of CBD.

Firstly, an article found in Volume 13 of Life Sciences17. In this study, it was reported that “the results indicate that all three cannabinoids are effective anticonvulsants. The time for peak effect is about 2 hr. In terms of relative potencies, cannabidiol and delta-9-THC are similar but both of them are more active than cannabinol”. The study itself worked by testing mice by administering CBD with Tween 80, saline and sesame seed oil.

Secondly, reported in Volume 21 of Seizure18, it was stated that CBD can be used to reduce the number of seizures. It was tested on animals and used the penicillin model and the pilocarpine model. It declares that “these results extend the anticonvulsant profile of CBD; when combined with a reported absence of psychoactive effects, this evidence strongly supports CBD as a therapeutic candidate for a diverse range of human epilepsies”.

And finally, thirdly, an article that was referenced on Europe PMC titled, ‘Anticonvulsant activity of four oxygenated cannabidiol derivatives’19. In this study, they used mice who were suffering from electroshock convulsions. After testing them with CBD (and four other compounds), they stated that “only CBD and IV were able to decrease significantly the spontaneous motor activity. CBD, II, III and IV were also active in protecting mice against electroconvulsive shock at doses of 100-200 mg/kg, although at the larger dose CBD and compound II were the most efficient. Compound I was toxic, killing about half of the animals within 24 h after the injection”.

Antidepressant (in mice)

Using mice in this study which was mentioned in the British Journal of Pharmacology20, it claimed that Cannabidiol had “antidepressant-like effects”. Using a swimming test, the study found that “treatment reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test, as did the prototype antidepressant imipramine, without changing exploratory behaviour in the open field arena”. And that “CBD induces antidepressant‐like effects comparable to those of imipramine. These effects of CBD were probably mediated by activation of 5‐HT1A receptors”. This showcased how CBD could possibly be used as an antidepressant. As with the other claims made in this essay, however, this is just one study and therefore you should do your research before taking CBD.

Antiseizure

Similarly to the anticonvulsant study mentioned above, it’s clear that there are reports out there that state that CBD can help with preventing seizures. One in particular mentioned within the European Journal of Pharmacology21, that used mice who were suffering from tonic and clonic convulsions as a result of electroshock, found that after administering Cannabidiol,  it “prevented 3MPA-induced lethality, but failed to prevent the occurrence of the other behavioral endpoints of the above treatments. CBD also failed to prevent convulsions and lethality caused by the CD 99.99 of strychnine, a glycine antagonist. The differential effects of CBD suggest that the cannabinoid acts to inhibit seizure spread in the CNS by an action on GABA, but not glycine, mechanisms”.

This is just the beginning. As more people use CBD and the market grows, studies will increase over the years. We look forward to the day that CBD is part of everyone’s medicine chest.


Footnotes

  1. F. S. Guimarães, S. F, Chiaretti, T.M, Graeff, F.G and Zuardia, A.W. Psychopharmacology, Volume 100 (1990), 558-559 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02244012
  2. Crippa, J. A. S., Derenusson, G. N., Ferrari, T. B., Wichert-Ana, L., Duran, F. L., Martin-Santos, R., … Hallak, J. E. C. (2011). Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(1), 121–130. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881110379283
  3. Ravi K. Das, Sunjeev K. Kamboj, Mayurun Ramadas, Kishoj Yogan, Vivek Gupta, Emily Redman, H. Valerie Curran, Celia J. A. Morgan, Cannabidiol enhances consolidation of explicit fear extinction in humans (2013) https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-012-2955-y
  4. Blessing, E.M., Steenkamp, M.M., Manzanares, J. et al. Neurotherapeutics (2015) 12: 825. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  5. Blessing, E.M., Steenkamp, M.M., Manzanares, J. et al. Neurotherapeutics (2015) 12: 825. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-015-0387-1
  6. Moreira, F. A, Aguiar, D.C and Guimaraes, S.F (2006) Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 1466-1471 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584606002612
  7. Various authors, Neuropsychopharmacology Volume 36 (2011) -Cannabidiol Reduces the Anxiety Induced by Simulated Public Speaking in Treatment-Naïve Social Phobia Patients https://www.nature.com/articles/npp20116
  8. Zuardi, A. W., Cosme, R. A., Graeff, F. G., & Guimarães, F. S. (1993). Effects of ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 7(1_suppl), 82–88. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/026988119300700112
  9. Martin-Morena, A.M, Reigada, D, Ramirez, B.G, Mechoulam, R, Innamorato, N,  Cuadrado, A and L. de Ceballos, M. ‘Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids Reduce Microglial Activation In Vitro and In Vivo: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease’ from Molecular Pharmacology June 1, 2011, 79 (6) 964-973  http://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/79/6/964
  10. Various authors, Diminished gray matter in the hippocampus of cannabis users: Possible protective effects of cannabidiol featured in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 114 (2011), 242-245 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871610003364
  11. Ren, Y, Whittard, J, Higuera-Mata, A, Morris, C.V and Hurd, Y.L – Cannabidiol, a Nonpsychotropic Component of Cannabis, Inhibits Cue-Induced Heroin Seeking and Normalizes Discrete Mesolimbic Neuronal Disturbances featured in Volume 29 of Journal of Neuroscience (2009) – http://www.jneurosci.org/content/29/47/14764.short
  12. Hamelink, C, Hampson, A., Wink, D.A, Eiden, L.E and Eskay, R.L  – Comparison of Cannabidiol, Antioxidants, and Diuretics in Reversing Binge Ethanol-Induced Neurotoxicity featured in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (2005),  314, 780-788 http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/314/2/780.short
  13. Solinas, M. , Massi, P. , Cantelmo, A. , Cattaneo, M. , Cammarota, R. , Bartolini, D. , Cinquina, V. , Valenti, M. , Vicentini, L. , Noonan, D. , Albini, A. and Parolaro, D. (2012), Cannabidiol inhibits angiogenesis by multiple mechanisms. British Journal of Pharmacology, 167: 1218-1231 https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02050.x
  14. Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Bianchessi, S. et al. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2006) 63: 2057. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00018-006-6156-x
  15. Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Bianchessi, S. et al. Cell. Mol. Life Sci. (2006) 63: 2057. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00018-006-6156-x
  16. van Klingeren, B. & ten Ham, M. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek – Antibacterial activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (1976) 42: 9 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00399444
  17. Karler, R. Cely, W and Turkanis, S.A, The Anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol and cannabinol featured in volume 13 of Life Sciences (1973), 1527-1531 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0024320573901410
  18. Various authors, Cannabidiol exerts anti-convulsant effects in animal models of temporal lobe and partial seizures featured in volume 21 of Seizure (2012) 344-352 – https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S105913111200057X
  19. Carlini EA , Mechoulam R , Lander N , Anticonvulsant activity of four oxygenated cannabidiol derivatives featured on Europe PMC, originally from the Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology (1975), 12, 1-15 https://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1188178
  20. Zanelati, T. , Biojone, C. , Moreira, F. , Guimarães, F. and Joca, S. (2010), Antidepressant‐like effects of cannabidiol in mice: possible involvement of 5‐HT1A receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 159: 122-128. https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00521.x
  21. Consore, P. Benedito, M.A.C, Leite, J. R, Carlini, E.A and Mechoulam, R.  Effects of cannabidiol on behavioral seizures caused by convulsant drugs or current in mice feautured in the European Journal of Pharmacology Volume 83 (1982), 293-298 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0014299982902643c